Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2018, Page: 41-45
Determination of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples Along the Shores of River Kaduna, Nigeria
Oladoja Silifat Titilayo, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, Nigeria
Nwaedozie Jonathan Maduka, Department of Chemistry, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria
Aliyu Adetutu Oluwakemi, Department of Chemistry, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria
Received: Oct. 21, 2018;       Accepted: Nov. 1, 2018;       Published: Nov. 27, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.jb.20180202.13      View  23      Downloads  6
Soil samples were collected during dry and wet seasons from 19 sites along the shores of river Kaduna stretching from Kawo in the North to Kudende, an industrial area in the South. The soil samples were analysed for the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Pb, Cd and Mn) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results show that dry season soil contains high level of Fe and Cd with mean values of 718.37±0.01 and 17.59±0.4 mg/kg respectively while wet season soil contains high level of Fe, Cd and Pb with mean values 737.84±0.01, 18.26±0.08 and 410.66±0.09 mg/kg respectively. However, Pb was not detected in the soil samples during the dry season. The mean values obtained from the heavy metals analysed were compared with WHO and EU standard limits and the result shows that the values obtained were above the acceptable range except for Cu values. This study concludes that soil samples along the shores of river Kaduna are polluted and not suitable for agricultural uses. This is attributed to different anthropogenic inputs such as industrial, agricultural, sewage effluent, burning of oil and tyres, plastics, wrapping, dyes, effluent from food, beverage and textile factories that discharges their effluent directly into river Kaduna.
Soil, Industrial, Heavy Metals, River Kaduna
To cite this article
Oladoja Silifat Titilayo, Nwaedozie Jonathan Maduka, Aliyu Adetutu Oluwakemi, Determination of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples Along the Shores of River Kaduna, Nigeria, Journal of Biomaterials. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2018, pp. 41-45. doi: 10.11648/j.jb.20180202.13
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Timbal, B., Power, B., Colman R., Viviand J. and Lirola A., (2002). Does Soil Moisture Influence Climate Variability and Predictability over Australia? Journal of climate, 23 (4): 1230-1238.
McEldowney, S., Hardman, D. J. and Waite S., (1999). Pollution, Ecology and Biotreatment, Longman Scientific and Technical. pp. 251-258.
Igusi, E. O. and Ofonmbuk, H., (2007). The Nature of Effluent Discharge, a Water Quality in Aswani, Industrial Area of Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Pollution 5: 131-144.
Ideriah, T. J. K., Braide, S. A. and Briggs, A. O., (2005). Distribution of Lead and Total Hydrocarbon in Tissue of Periwinkles (Typanotonus Fuscatus and Pachymelania Aurita) in the upper Bonny River, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental. 10 (2): 135-143.
Ayodele, J. T. and Gimba, I. D., (2002). Heavy Metals in Airborne Harmattan Dust in Kano, Nigeria. Trop Environ. Res. 3 (1): 230-237.
Mendham, J., Denney, R. C. B., Arnes, J. D. and Thomas, M. J. K., (2006). Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 6th Ed., Pearson Education Ltd., India, pp. 696.
Adeniyi, A. A. and Afolabi, J. A., (2002). Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Soils within the vicinity of facilities handling Refined Petroleum Products in Lagos Metroplolis’ Environ. Int., 34: 102-107.
Fatoki, O. S., (2000). Trace Zinc and Copper Concentration is Roadside Vegetation and Surface Soils: a Measurement of Local Atmospheric Pollution in Alice, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Studies, 57: 501-513.
European Union’s Commission, EU (2003). Council Directive on the Protection of Environment, and in Particular of Soil, When Sewage Sludge Is Used In Agriculture. 66/278/EEC
Alloway, B. J. (1995). Heavy Metals in Soil within the Vicinity of Facilities Handling Refined Petroleum Products in Lagos Metropolis’, Int., 28: 79-82.
Alexander, M. J. and Pasquini, M. W. (2004), Chemical Properties of Urban Ash produced by Open Burning on the Jos Plateau: Implications for Agriculture’ Sci. Total Environ., 319 (1-3): 225-240.
Akbar, K. F., Hale W. H. G. H. Eadley, A. D. and Athme, M. (2006). Heavy Metal Contamination of Roadside Soils in Northern England. Soil and Water Res. 1 (14): 158-168.
Audu, A. A. and Lawal, A. O., (2005). Variation in Metal Contents of Plants in Vegetable Gardens Sites in Kano Metropolis J. Appl. Sci. 10 (2): 105-109.
John, W. J. and Stephen, G. C., (2000). Critical Evaluation of Multi-element Scheme using Plasma Emission Anhydride Evolution Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for the Analysis of Plants and Animal Tissues. Analysis of Plants and Animal tissues. 2 (7): 353-369.
Fornster, U. and Wittman, C. T. W., (1984). Metal; Pollution in the Aquatic Environment Springer- Verlag, Berlin. Heidelberg New York pp. 17-20.
Anthony, K. and Balwant, S. (2004). Heavy Metals Contamination of Home grown Vegetables near Metal Smelters in N. S. W. Sydney. Journal of applied science, 5 (2): 2-17.
Ansari, T. M. Marr, I. L. and Tarq, N., (2004). Heavy Metal in Marine Pollution Perspective-A Mini Review Journal of Applied Science, 4 (1): 1-20.
Ho, I. B and Tai K. M. (2001). Elevated level of Lead and others Metals in Roadside Soil and Grass and their use to monitor Metal Deposition in Hong Kong. Environmental Pollution. 49: 37-45.
Albasel, N. and Cottenie, A. (1985). Heavy Metal Contamination near major Highways, Industrial and Urban Areas in Belgian Grassland. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 24: 103-109.
Browse journals by subject