Journal of Biomaterials

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Characterization of Selected Nigerian Kaolinites and Agricultural Waste Ashes as Materials for Sustainable Geopolymer Brick Manufacturing

Received: 29 July 2021    Accepted: 13 August 2021    Published: 5 October 2021
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Abstract

There have been reports of an increasing rate of green house gas emissions from different sources resulting to adverse climatic changes all over the world. 2018 BBC Chatham House report stated that about 8% of the worlds CO2 emission come from cement production. Hence the need to look at alternative sources of cement production which would not compromise the expected strength and efficiency in building constructions as well as reduce CO2 emission into the environment. This research presents an empirical study that investigates the Characterization of Selected Nigerian Kaolinites and agricultural waste ashes (Rice Husk Ashes) as materials for sustainable geopolymer brick manufacturing. A variety of parameters including solid-to-solid mix ratio, solid-to-liquid mix ratio, liquid-to-liquid mix ratio, presence of sand filler, curing duration, water absorptivity, and bulk density were examined to understand the extent or degree of geopolymerization as well as their influence on the mechanical properties of the clay-based geopolymers. From the results, it was observed that compressive strength of the geopolymer mixes increases with time progressively from 7days through 28days with Ikere clay sample of solid-to-liquid ratio 2.0 giving the highest compressive strength. The compressive strength test carried out on Rice Husk Ash-Clay geopolymers showed a tremendous increase in strenghth compared to the ones synthesised with clay samples alone. The geopolymer bricks also showed impressive strength with time increasing progressively from 7days through 28days. However, the geopolymer binders as well as the bricks produced with Ikere clay showed a greater compressive strength than that produced with Ikare clay samples. It was also observed that bricks made from RHA-CLAY geopolymer showed impressive strength compared to that made from ordinary Portland cement. It is obvious from these results that geopolymers could be a good alternative to contemporary method of cement production since it is more environmentally friendly.

DOI 10.11648/j.jb.20210502.12
Published in Journal of Biomaterials (Volume 5, Issue 2, December 2021)
Page(s) 23-34
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Geopolymers, Curing Duration, Water Absorptivity, Bulk Density, Compressive Strength, ASTM Standards

References
[1] Sumajouw, D. J., and Rangan, B. V. (2004). Development of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. ACI Materials Journal. 101 (6): 467-472.
[2] Hardjito, D., Wallah, S., Sumajouw, D. &Rangan, B.(2004). Properties of Geopolymer concrete with fly ash as source material: effect of mixture composition, the 7th CANMET/ACI International Conference on Recent Advance in Concrete Technology, Las Vegas, USA.
[3] Abdul-Hamid, A., Sulaiman, R. R., Osman, A., and Saari, N. (2007). Preliminary studies of the chemical composition of rice milling components stabilized by microwave heating. J. Food Composition and Analysis. 20: 627-637.
[4] Davidovits, J., 1991. Geopolymers: Inorganic Polymeric New Materials. Journal of Thermal Analysis, 37: 1633-1656.
[5] Buchwald, A., Hohmann, M., Kaps, C., Bettziehe, H. and Kuhmert, J. T. (2004). “Stabilized foam clay material with high performance thermal insulation properties”, CFI – Ceram Forum Int. 81, E 39-42.
[6] Duxson, P., Provis, J. L., Lukey, G. C., Mallicoat, S. W., Kriven, W. M. and van Deventer, J. S. J. (2005). “Understanding the relationship between geopolymer composition, microstructure and mechanical properties”, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 269, 47-58.
[7] Duxson, P., Fernandez-Jimenez, A., Provis, J. L., Lukey, G. C., Palom, A. and van Deventer, J. S. J. (2007). “Geopolymer technology: the current state of the art” J. Mater Sci 42, 2917-2933.
[8] Palomo, A., Grutzeck, M. W., and Blanco, M. T. (1999). Alkali-activated fly ashes a cement for the future Cement Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research. 8, 1323-1329.
[9] Van Jaarsveld, J. G., van Deventer, J. S. J., Lukey, G. C. (2002). “The effect of composition and temperature on the properties of fly ash- and kaolinite-based geopolymers”, Chemical Engineering Journal 89, 63-73.
[10] Pacheco-Torgal, F.; Castro-Gomes, J.; Jalali, S. (2008). Alkali-activated binders: A review. Part 2. About materials and binders manufacture. Constr. Build. Mater., 22, 1315–1322.
[11] Titiladunayo, I. F. and Fapetu, O. P. (2011) Selection of Clay for Furnace Lining in a Pyrolysis Process. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS), 2, 938-945.
[12] Ogundiran M. B. and Ikotun O. J. (2014). Investigating the Suitability of Nigerian CalcinedKaolins as Raw Materials for Geopolymer Binders, Transactions of the Indian Ceramic Society, 73, 138–142.
[13] F. Pacheco-Torgal, J. Castro-Gomes, and S. Jalali, (2007). Cementitious building materials reinforced with vegetable fibres: A review. Cement and Concrete Research, 37, 933–941.
[14] Fletscher, R. A., Mac Kenzie, K. J. D., Nicholson, C. L. and Shimada, S. (2005). “The composition range of aluminosilicategeopolymers”. J European Ceram. Soc. 25, 1471-1477.
[15] ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials. (2005). Annual Book of ASTM Standards. C150–05.
[16] De Jong, B. & G. Brown, (1980). GeochimCosmochim Act. 44 (3): 491.
[17] Mohsen Q. and Mostafa N. Y. (2010). Investigating the possibility of utilizing low kaolinitic clays in production of geopolymer bricks. Ceramics – Silikaty 54. 2: 160-168.
[18] Lodeiro, G., Palomo, A. and Jiménez, F. (2007). “Alkali-aggregate reaction inactivated fly ash system”, Cement Concrete Res., 37, 175-183.
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    Ogbonna Chidiebere Chinonso. (2021). Characterization of Selected Nigerian Kaolinites and Agricultural Waste Ashes as Materials for Sustainable Geopolymer Brick Manufacturing. Journal of Biomaterials, 5(2), 23-34. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jb.20210502.12

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    ACS Style

    Ogbonna Chidiebere Chinonso. Characterization of Selected Nigerian Kaolinites and Agricultural Waste Ashes as Materials for Sustainable Geopolymer Brick Manufacturing. J. Biomater. 2021, 5(2), 23-34. doi: 10.11648/j.jb.20210502.12

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    AMA Style

    Ogbonna Chidiebere Chinonso. Characterization of Selected Nigerian Kaolinites and Agricultural Waste Ashes as Materials for Sustainable Geopolymer Brick Manufacturing. J Biomater. 2021;5(2):23-34. doi: 10.11648/j.jb.20210502.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.jb.20210502.12,
      author = {Ogbonna Chidiebere Chinonso},
      title = {Characterization of Selected Nigerian Kaolinites and Agricultural Waste Ashes as Materials for Sustainable Geopolymer Brick Manufacturing},
      journal = {Journal of Biomaterials},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {23-34},
      doi = {10.11648/j.jb.20210502.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jb.20210502.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.jb.20210502.12},
      abstract = {There have been reports of an increasing rate of green house gas emissions from different sources resulting to adverse climatic changes all over the world. 2018 BBC Chatham House report stated that about 8% of the worlds CO2 emission come from cement production. Hence the need to look at alternative sources of cement production which would not compromise the expected strength and efficiency in building constructions as well as reduce CO2 emission into the environment. This research presents an empirical study that investigates the Characterization of Selected Nigerian Kaolinites and agricultural waste ashes (Rice Husk Ashes) as materials for sustainable geopolymer brick manufacturing. A variety of parameters including solid-to-solid mix ratio, solid-to-liquid mix ratio, liquid-to-liquid mix ratio, presence of sand filler, curing duration, water absorptivity, and bulk density were examined to understand the extent or degree of geopolymerization as well as their influence on the mechanical properties of the clay-based geopolymers. From the results, it was observed that compressive strength of the geopolymer mixes increases with time progressively from 7days through 28days with Ikere clay sample of solid-to-liquid ratio 2.0 giving the highest compressive strength. The compressive strength test carried out on Rice Husk Ash-Clay geopolymers showed a tremendous increase in strenghth compared to the ones synthesised with clay samples alone. The geopolymer bricks also showed impressive strength with time increasing progressively from 7days through 28days. However, the geopolymer binders as well as the bricks produced with Ikere clay showed a greater compressive strength than that produced with Ikare clay samples. It was also observed that bricks made from RHA-CLAY geopolymer showed impressive strength compared to that made from ordinary Portland cement. It is obvious from these results that geopolymers could be a good alternative to contemporary method of cement production since it is more environmentally friendly.},
     year = {2021}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Characterization of Selected Nigerian Kaolinites and Agricultural Waste Ashes as Materials for Sustainable Geopolymer Brick Manufacturing
    AU  - Ogbonna Chidiebere Chinonso
    Y1  - 2021/10/05
    PY  - 2021
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jb.20210502.12
    DO  - 10.11648/j.jb.20210502.12
    T2  - Journal of Biomaterials
    JF  - Journal of Biomaterials
    JO  - Journal of Biomaterials
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    EP  - 34
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2640-2629
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jb.20210502.12
    AB  - There have been reports of an increasing rate of green house gas emissions from different sources resulting to adverse climatic changes all over the world. 2018 BBC Chatham House report stated that about 8% of the worlds CO2 emission come from cement production. Hence the need to look at alternative sources of cement production which would not compromise the expected strength and efficiency in building constructions as well as reduce CO2 emission into the environment. This research presents an empirical study that investigates the Characterization of Selected Nigerian Kaolinites and agricultural waste ashes (Rice Husk Ashes) as materials for sustainable geopolymer brick manufacturing. A variety of parameters including solid-to-solid mix ratio, solid-to-liquid mix ratio, liquid-to-liquid mix ratio, presence of sand filler, curing duration, water absorptivity, and bulk density were examined to understand the extent or degree of geopolymerization as well as their influence on the mechanical properties of the clay-based geopolymers. From the results, it was observed that compressive strength of the geopolymer mixes increases with time progressively from 7days through 28days with Ikere clay sample of solid-to-liquid ratio 2.0 giving the highest compressive strength. The compressive strength test carried out on Rice Husk Ash-Clay geopolymers showed a tremendous increase in strenghth compared to the ones synthesised with clay samples alone. The geopolymer bricks also showed impressive strength with time increasing progressively from 7days through 28days. However, the geopolymer binders as well as the bricks produced with Ikere clay showed a greater compressive strength than that produced with Ikare clay samples. It was also observed that bricks made from RHA-CLAY geopolymer showed impressive strength compared to that made from ordinary Portland cement. It is obvious from these results that geopolymers could be a good alternative to contemporary method of cement production since it is more environmentally friendly.
    VL  - 5
    IS  - 2
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

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